Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression.
Organophosphates (OPs) are esters, amides, or thiol derivatives of phosphoric acid synthesized first in the early 19th century. The history of the development of OPs is amalgamated with wars. They are used as pesticides in agricultural fields, as chemical weapons in war fields, as plasticizers, oil additives, and lubricants in industries. Eventually, OP has become a largely used insecticide in the world, accounting for more than 40% of the pesticide market.
OPs inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE), which in turn induces synapses of nervous and muscular systems leading to agitation, hypersalivation, convulsion, respiratory failure, and eventually death of insects and mammals. Various animal and human studies have uncovered the association between OP exposure and diabetic prevalence.
In the last few decades, the epidemic of diabetes intensified concurrently with increased consumption of synthetic chemicals including OPs. [Researchers] detected a probable link between direct exposure to OPs and self-reported diabetic status in a rural population.